What is Global Internet Exchange (GIX)?
Global Internet Exchange (GIX) is a global network of peer-based Internet Exchange Points (IXP or IX) that are used to exchange data traffic between Internet Service Providers (ISP) and large networks. IXPs provide the physical infrastructure (routers, switches, and other supporting devices) that serve as the basis for data exchange between ISPs. This provides an inexpensive, redundant, resilient, route-based, low-latency alternative to more expensive and transit-based connections to high-tier ISPs.
The Internet is a complex hierarchical network that serves as a global basis for data exchange between ISP and customers. ISP traffic is routed within other ISPs according to client requirements. Clients connect to Tier 3 ISPs, which use a direct connection to Tier 2 ISPs, provide interconnectivity between Tier 3 ISPs, and route traffic to the Tier 1 network (Internet).
Tier 2 ISPs charge Tier 3 ISPs for bandwidth and traffic, which is costly, inefficient and creates unnecessary latency - even if the source and destination are geographically close. As an alternative to transit links, ISPs also use IXPs for interconnectivity. These Internet Exchange Points (IEP) provide a physical location where ISPs can exchange traffic without bandwidth and volume restrictions. Both networks are often in the same city, so the direct connection reduces latency.
Kommerzielle und Community-basierte IXPs existieren in GIX-Netzwerken. IXP-Peering-Vereinbarungen werden normalerweise zur Übernahme von Setup-Kosten unterzeichnet. Teure Börsen erfordern, dass die Teilnehmer je nach Port-Geschwindigkeit jährlich oder monatlich bezahlen.Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Fast Ethernet und Gigabit Ethernet sind die am weitesten verbreiteten Technologien in GIX- und IXP-Setups. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) bildet den Routing-Backbone und Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) bildet das Switching Backbone
Most IXPs in GIX networks leave the session configuration to individual members who contact and configure individual sessions with one another. Many IXPs in GIX networks also implement multilateral peering (MLP), in which each member matches a route server that automatically distributes routes to other members who work with the route server.