As an element of the retrospective financial situation analysis, asset analysis includes the examination of the type and composition of assets, the duration of the asset retention and the events in the area of investment activity that lie behind the asset composition. From the point of view of the duration of the commitment, the asset structure is an indication of the financial commitment risks taken, the liquidity of the positions and the flexibility to adapt to changing sales conditions. The asset base is important for the operational efficiency, profitability and financial stability of the company. The effects on the financial situation also depend on the intensity of use and investment in the asset area.
To analyze the asset structure, key figures on the structure of assets are used, whereby the following breakdown figures are particularly important:
Further structural indicators are useful for deepening the individual case. For the business evaluation, these key figures are compared over time with regard to their change and in a cross-company comparison, for example with industry average values, in order to determine abnormalities in the company's asset retention. For the financial analysis, references to investment focus, liquidity, retention risks and financial disposition elasticity of the assets can be taken from it.
Die Analyse von Vermögensgegebenheiten auf der Basis ausgewiesener Bilanzzahlen ist nicht unproblematisch, da diese Zahlen durch Ansatz- und Bewertungsspielräume sowie steuerliche Bewertungsmöglichkeiten beeinflusst sind und zudem gesetzliche Bewertungsobergrenzen für Vermögensgüter bestehen, so dass u.U. beträchtliche hidden reserves vorhanden sein können.
The influence of assets on the company's financial position depends, among other things, on the intensity with which the available assets are used. The higher the turnover rate of the assets, the less capital and assets are tied up to cope with a given performance framework, in other words: the longer the bond periods are, the more assets must be made available and financed to cope with the same performance and turnover volume. The analysis of the turnover of assets can be carried out as turnover rate or as turnover time or inventory range.
The turnover rate of total assets is comparatively heterogeneous; an in-depth analysis requires the resolution of this number in terms of turnover conditions for individual asset categories. On this basis, statements are made about the appropriateness of the respective stocks. The noticeable lengthening of the retention periods in a temporal comparison reveals, for example, undesirable developments in the inventory management; in an inter-company comparison, operational weaknesses in inventory management and logistics become clear due to less intensive use of assets than in other companies.
For a more in-depth analysis of the turnover conditions of the total assets, figures related to the current assets in particular must be included due to the short-term design.
As part of the investment analysis, information for assessing the substance and growth of the company should be obtained about the depreciation of fixed assets and the division of investments into replacement and expansion investments. The key figures are evaluated by comparing them over time and comparing them with average values for the industry. The following key figures in particular are used to assess investment activity.