(1) The continuing education programs for university graduates and managers include additional, advanced, distance learning, supplementary and postgraduate courses at state universities or private institutions. A doctoral degree is an ideal option for a scientific career or a specialized practical career.
The Master of Business Administration (MBA) postgraduate course lasts nine months to two years as a full-time, part-time, modular or distance learning course. The addressees include university graduates, young professionals or managers with several years of professional and management experience. Requirements are a completed university degree at a university, technical college, administrative, business or professional academy as well as two years of professional experience. The tuition fees can amount to several thousand euros.
The MBA offers good career opportunities through language acquisition and international experience. At the University of South Carolina, the Master in International Business Studies is combined with a theoretical and practical postgraduate course (11-month course in business administration, economics, finance and marketing; 7-month internship, 3-month graduation course). Applicants should be under 35 and have a university degree.
At the Europa-Institut at the University of Basel, a Master of Advanced European Studies is offered as a 2-semester full-time course and a 4-semester part-time course including business law and political science courses. The postgraduate course is aimed at university graduates who want to work in the foreign or economic ministries of the EU.
Also worth mentioning are the postgraduate programs in Kiel, the postgraduate studies in corporate management at the University of St. Gallen and the university seminar in economics in Schloss Gracht as a further training facility for executives. Since 1993 there has been a 15-month job-accompanying postgraduate course in management.
(2) Steuerliche Nachdiplomstudiengänge sind noch unterrepräsentiert. An der Universität Osnabrück wird für tax consultant, Finanzbeamte und Juristen ein einjähriger Ergänzungsstudiengang Tax science angeboten. An der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien wurde 1999 ein postgraduierter Universitätslehrgang für internationales Steuerrecht (Master of Advanced Studies in International Tax Law) für Hochschulabsolventen eingerichtet.
The universities are also increasingly offering practical special events (lectures with public discussion; tax contact seminars). The Faculty of Economics at the University of Göttingen offers an interdisciplinary bachelor's and master's degree in "International Economics". In the USA there is a highly specialized training in taxation at over 100 universities (Master of Taxation). A special tax diploma can also be obtained at law schools.