What is superconductor?
A superconductor is a material that can conduct electricity without resistance. In most cases, materials such as metallic elements or compounds offer some resistance at room temperature, but offer less resistance at a temperature known as the critical temperature.
The transport of electrons from one atom to another is often carried out by these particular materials after reaching the critical temperature, making the material superconducting. Superconductors are used in many areas such as medicine and magnetic resonance imaging.
Most materials have to be in a very low energy state in order to be superconducting. Modern research focuses on the development of compounds that can be superconducting at high temperatures.
There are two categories of superconductors: Type I and Type II. A Type I superconductor consists of conventional conductive elements that have a critical temperature in the range of 0.000325 K to 7.8 K at standard pressure. Some type I superconductors require high pressure to reach the superconducting state. Mercury, lead, sulfur and aluminum are some examples of Type I superconductors.
Type II superconductors mainly consist of metallic alloys and compounds that become superconducting at higher temperatures compared to Type I superconductors. How this increase in temperature results in superconductivity for these materials has not yet been fully clarified. Unlike type I superconductors, type II superconductors can be penetrated with a magnetic field.