What is subnetting / subnets?
Subnetting is the strategy of partitioning a single physical network into more than one smaller logical subnetwork (s). An IP address comprises a network segment and a host segment.
Subnets are designed by accepting bits from the host part of the IP address and using those bits to assign a number of smaller subnets within the original network. Subnetting allows an organization to add subnetworks without having to purchase a new network number through the Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Subnetting helps reduce network traffic and hides network complexity. Subnetting is essential when a single network number needs to be assigned over numerous segments of a local area network (LAN).
Subnets were originally designed to address the shortage of IP addresses over the Internet.
Each IP address consists of a subnet mask. All class types such as Class A, Class B, and Class C contain the subnet mask, which is known as the standard subnet mask. The subnet mask is used to determine the type and number of IP addresses required for a particular local area network. The firewall or router is known as the default gateway. The standard subnet mask is as follows:
- Class A: 255.0.0.0
- Class B: 255.255.0.0
- Class C: 255.255.255.0
The subnetting process allows the administrator to break a single Class A, Class B, or Class C network number into smaller parts. The subnets can again be subdivided into sub-subnets.
Dividing the network into a number of subnets has the following advantages:
- Reduces network traffic by reducing the volume of broadcasts
- Helps to surpass the restrictions in a local area network (LAN), e.g. B. the maximum number of allowed hosts.
- Allows users to access a work network from home; It is not necessary to open the entire network.