Price differentiation - The ratio of remuneration to service is referred to as price:
Price = payment / service
Accordingly, there are basically three options for differentiating (spreading) the sales prices:
With direct price differentiation, different fees are charged for uniform services or products. With indirect price differentiation, different services are offered for uniform charges. The combined price differentiation is characterized by the fact that both the fees and the services are different.
This form is also known as factual price differentiation. A factual price differentiation exists, for example, if different fees are charged for product variants. The differences in fees are not based on the different costs of the product variants, but on the different willingness to pay of the customer. A special form of combined price differentiation is price bundling.
The sales prices can be differentiated according to four criteria: personal, spatial, temporal and / or according to sales channels.
The personal price differentiation is based on demographic characteristics of the individual customers or customer groups such as B. Age, gender, income and / or occupation. Example: Publishers sell newspapers and journals cheaper to students than to professionals.
Spatial price differentiation exists when different prices are charged in different sales areas. Example: Different gasoline prices in the city and in the country as well as on the motorway.
Temporal price differentiation is used when different prices are charged depending on the time of day, week, month or season. Example: Different telephone tariffs depending on the time of day.
A sales price differentiation is z. For example, if hotel rooms are offered at different prices depending on the distribution channel.
The individual criteria and forms of price differentiation can be combined so that the following alternatives result:
The individual alternatives for price differentiation have specific advantages and disadvantages that must be weighed against each other when making a decision. In the case of personal price differentiation, for example, there is a risk that the company's relationships with some customers will be tarnished because they feel discriminated against. For a successful price differentiation policy, the following requirements must be met:
The market must be divisible into segments with different price elasticities
Customers who enjoy low prices must not have the opportunity to resell the products in question to discriminated buyers
No undercutting by competitors.
Die Ziele der Preisdifferenzierung bestehen darin, den Umsatz und Gewinn zu steigern durch Abschöpfung der so genannten Consumer surplus oder Käuferrente. Darunter versteht man den Geldbetrag, den die Kunden höchstens zu zahlen bereit sind, abzüglich der tatsächlichen Ausgaben. Diese Rente wird vollständig abgeschöpft, wenn der jeweilige Verkaufspreis mit der individuellen Zahlungsbereitschaft übereinstimmt.
The price differentiation is not only associated with higher revenues, but also with higher costs for the segmentation of the market and possibly for the differentiation of the products. The price differentiation is optimal or profit maximum if the resulting increase in revenue is greater than the corresponding increase in costs.