What is nanolithography?
Nanolithography is a branch of nanotechnology and the name of the process used to emboss, write, or etch patterns on a microscopic level to create incredibly small structures. This process is typically used for creating smaller and faster electronic devices such as micro / nanochips and processors. Nanolithography is mainly used in various technology areas from electronics to biomedicine.
Nanolithography is a broad term used to describe various processes for creating nanoscale patterns on various media, the most common of which is the semiconductor material silicon.
The predominant purpose of nanolithography is to shrink electronic devices which allows more electronic parts to be crammed into smaller spaces; H. Smaller integrated circuits that result in smaller devices that are faster and cheaper to manufacture because fewer materials are required. This also increases performance and response times as the electrons only have to travel very short distances.
Some techniques used in nanolithography are as follows:
- X-ray lithography - Is implemented using a proximity printing approach and is based on near-field X-rays in Fresnel diffraction. It is known to expand its optical resolution to 15 nm.
- Double Patterning - A method used to increase the pitch resolution of a lithographic process by printing additional patterns between the spaces of already printed patterns in the same layer.
- Electron Beam Direct Write (EBDW) Lithography - The process most commonly used in lithography that uses an electron beam to create patterns.
- Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography - A form of optical lithography that uses ultrashort light wavelengths of 13.5 nm.