Markttypologie – In der Wirtschaftswissenschaft gibt es keine allgemeingültige Definition des Begriffes Markt. Volkswirtschaftlich wird der Markt als eine Institution verstanden, bei dem das Angebot und die Nachfrage zusammentreffen und entsprechende Preise gebildet werden. Betriebswirtschaftlich wird der Markt vom Standpunkt eines Unternehmens aus betrachtet, wobei dem Sales market besondere Beachtung geschenkt wird.
In a market, there are basically two polar opposites: economic subjects (suppliers, competitors and buyers) and economic objects (products, production factors and means of financing). But not only these elements alone are important, but above all the relationships between them. It is only through mutual relationships that economic subjects and objects acquire their meaning and are to be understood as a market. The market is thus a socio-economic system, ie the totality of the relationships between suppliers and buyers of comparable economic objects.
In practice, there are many forms of appearance of markets that can be typologically differentiated from one another and made manageable:
Table of Contents
- 1 Objective delimitation
- 2 Time limit
- 3 Spatial demarcation
- 4 Functional demarcation
- Markets for products (goods, services, rights of use)
- Markets for factors of production (labor, materials, resources, information)
- Financing markets (equity and debt)
- Futures markets
- Spot markets
- Seasonal markets
- Local markets
- Regional markets
- National markets
- Global Markets
- Domestic markets
- Foreign markets
According to the respective number of suppliers and buyers, the following types of market are to be distinguished.
According to the type of supplier and customer
The following relationships can exist between consumers, companies (business) and the public sector (administration).
According to the market power of the buyer and seller
- Buyer's markets
- Seller markets
According to the type of customer
- K-Markets (consumers as demanders)
- P markets (producers as buyers)
- W markets (resellers as buyers)
- Austrian markets (public authorities as consumers)
According to the access options
- open markets
- closed markets
In open markets, there are no legal or tactical restrictions on the entry of additional competitors. In the case of closed markets, the group of providers is clearly defined and cannot be changed.
According to the degree of organization
- organized markets
- Freely configurable markets
By combining several criteria, the relevant markets of a company can be operationally defined.