Management-by-technology is a leadership technique that describes basic behavior and procedures and is used in a company to manage management tasks. A variety of management-by-techniques have been developed, the most important of which are:
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Management by exception
That Management by exceptionin which the employees make their own decisions within a given framework. All decisions that fall within the normal range are made by the responsible bodies. The supervisor only decides in exceptional cases. This technique is geared towards the leadership function of decision-making.
Management by delegation
That Management by delegation, in which competencies and responsibility for action are transferred to employees as long as they are not typical management functions of the company management or tasks with far-reaching consequences. The focus here is on the management function of implementation.
Management by objectives
That Management by objectives, in which the employees act on the basis of goals that are often agreed between the line manager and his / her employees, but are sometimes also set by the line manager. The leadership role of goal setting is emphasized.
Management by Systems
That Management by Systems, which is guided by system control. All operational processes are controlled in the sense of control loops. A manager acts as a controller on a controlled system that represents the problem to be influenced. Many practitioners regard this method as a fiction, because at the moment the necessary prerequisites for the technical implementation of this system are not (yet) given. This technology places particular emphasis on the management functions of realizing and organizing.