What is liquid crystal display?
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a type of display technology that uses liquid crystals that open or close when excited by an electrical current. These liquid crystals are the basis for LCD technology.
Considered one of the major innovations in display devices, LCD is widely used in consumer electronics such as microwave ovens, laptops, smartphones, and televisions. LCD technology is preferred over other display technologies because it is lighter, thinner and less powerful.
Liquid crystal technology essentially began in 1888 when Friedrich Reinitzer discovered the crystalline nature of cholesterol extracted from carrots. In 1972 the first active matrix liquid crystal display panel was manufactured by Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, and by 2008 LCD televisions were sold worldwide and continue to actively replace models of cathode ray tubes.
The liquid crystals consist of complex molecules. Just like water, they change their state from solid to liquid depending on the temperature to which they are exposed. In a liquid state, the molecules move around but are likely to form a line in a certain direction so that they can reflect light. Crystals are arranged in a matrix with groups of three crystals, red, green, and blue, forming a segment known as a pixel. Groups of pixels can form numbers, letters or shapes and are arranged in columns or rows. Polarized light is allowed or blocked as liquid crystals are turned on and off individually.