Also known as: Capacity-oriented variable working hours

The KAPOVAZ is a working time model that is based on the considerable daily and temporal fluctuations in sales, particularly in the service, retail and catering sectors. KAPOVAZ stands for capacity-oriented variable working hours and is a means of adapting the number of employees currently working according to demand.

Advantages of KAPOVAZ

Especially in industries in which finished goods cannot be produced in advance, the KAPOVAZ is a suitable means to avoid a bottleneck in the provision of services and also not to allow the workforce to swell too much in off-peak times. With this, companies can use the Personnel costs keep it under control while offering high quality products.

The companies usually achieve the “breathing company” according to capacity requirements through a mixture of a full-time permanent workforce and additional part-time employees. If fluctuations in demand can be planned and always repeat themselves on certain days of the week, then thanks to KAPOVAZ, part-time workers can also achieve a predictable income throughout the year.

The flexible deployment of employees also gives people access to the job market who may only be able to work a few hours a day. Part-time farmers or young single mothers are very often involved in part-time tasks and often appreciate the flexible work options.

The advantages at a glance

  • Capacity adjustments and flexibility for companies
  • Personnel costs controllable
  • opens access to the labor market for part-time workers

Disadvantages of KAPOVAZ

There is also criticism of KAPOVAZ: In many companies there is an internal split between permanent, well-trained employees and those who are also hired at times of high demand. These are often not properly instructed in their tasks and only know small parts of the range - so they are not really good contacts for customers.

The unions complain about the risk that under the pretext of KAPOVAZ one full-time position would be divided into many part-time positions and that this would result in wage pressure.

A major disadvantage of the KAPOVAZ, however, is that it is often only used for short periods of time. For example, if employees are only required for 2 hours in the morning and 2 hours in the afternoon, the day is divided up. Those who then live further away from their place of work are on the road all day just like a full-time employee - but earn less.

Disadvantages at a glance

  • internal division between full-time employees and part-time employees
  • Risk of converting full-time positions to part-time positions
  • high flexibility of the workers in terms of time is required


  • flexible and demand-oriented working time model
  • only emerged through the flexibilization of the world of work
  • Working time model that should avoid bottlenecks and minimize customer waiting times
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