globalization

globalization (als regional weitreichendste Form von Internationalisierung im Sinne von weltweiten Aktivitäten) bezeichnet die Zunahme grenzüberschreitender wirtschaftlicher Aktivitäten, die Ausweitung des Transfers von Waren, Dienstleistungen, Investitionen, Geld und Ideen und die gemeinsame Koordination weltweiter Aktivitäten. Global ist auch der Wettbewerb in den zunehmend liberalisierten Märkten, und globale Economies of Scale sind notwendig, um gegen alte und neue Konkurrenten bestehen zu können.
According to LEVITT, the technological, social and economic developments of the last two decades have resulted in a global marketplace in which companies seek global economies of scale in order to remain competitive. The result is global marketing that reacts to homogeneous consumer decisions with standardized products.

This process has always taken place and has become known to us with shipping at the latest since the 18th century. Nevertheless, some of the prerequisites for globalization have only been fully met by the IT and telecommunications of our time.

Business circles emphasize that globalization promotes the growth of the world economy. Business Week titled its special edition on the economy of the 21st century: volatility is here to stay, but technology and globalization will spur robust growth.l 02

The micro-economic reasons for globalization include: 1. low transport costs, 2. high fixed costs (research and development) with comparably low variable costs for production, and 3. low costs for coordination through the use of IT and telecommunications. Fourthly, one of the microeconomic conditions is the global awareness of products, which can be promoted through branding and marketing that strives for global uniformity of customer needs.
The macroeconomic and political prerequisites for globalization include a globally organized financial system and adequate stability of the institutions in the individual countries.

In addition, globalization is being promoted by dismantling political barriers (in the sense of deregulation) for international trade, for worldwide financial transfers and unhindered communication. Globalization means international networking and completely mobile factor flows (trade, investment and payment flows) across national borders. The term globalization implicitly includes the demand for a certain liberalization and, in an extreme interpretation,

the abolition of borders, the integration of the previous national economies, which will then be replaced by an integrated world economy.

As a result, an increasingly unified global culture would replace the various regional cultures, and a commitment to a global community would replace the previous national loyalties. Therefore, boundaries are not only physically crossed or opened, but also emotionally and cognitively overcome.

So würde ein neues Denkmuster entstehen, eine kosmopolitische Einstellung. Damit würden lokale politische Systeme und Regierungen nicht überflüssig, jedoch tritt die frühere Aufgabe des Schutzes der nationalen Grenzen gegen Bedrohung von außen als Hoheitsaufgabe stark in den Hintergrund. Auch die Unternehmen sind in einer globalen Wirtschaft anders organisiert. Die Netzwerkbildung und die Entstehung virtueller Unternehmen wird stark gefordert. Unternehmen werden zu wissensbasierten Systemen; die Wissenserzeugung, das Lernen und das Wissensmanagement (Knowledge management) werden zu Kernaktivitäten.

The globalization of our time has attracted numerous critics. The criticism is not even directed so much against the migration of jobs as against the indisputable fact that worldwide economies of scale result in a certain, monotonous appearance. Local and traditional forms of economic activity and market presence will disappear as long as they are not part of the globally homogeneous economic culture.

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