What is a geosynchronous satellite?
A geostationary satellite is a satellite that orbits the earth and gradually repeats its orbit over certain points on the earth.
Geosynchronous networks are communication networks based on communication via geosynchronous satellites. Geosynchronous orbit is the most common type of orbit for a communications satellite.
The concept of a geostationary satellite for communication purposes was first published in 1928 by Herman Potocnik. The advantage of this type of satellite is that the receiving antennas can be fixed in place, which makes them cheaper than tracking antennas. These satellites have also revolutionized television broadcasting, global communications, and weather forecasting.
When this orbit of the satellite is placed over the equator, the orbit is circular and the angular velocity is the same as that of the earth and the satellite is called a geostationary satellite. This satellite would be in both geostationary and geosynchronous orbits. The satellite is assigned to synchronization and appears to be stationary.
These satellites are located approximately 22,000 miles above the equator and orbit in the same direction as the earth rotates from west to east. At this altitude, the satellite needs 24 hours to orbit the earth.
When a geosynchronous satellite orbit is incorrectly aligned with the equator, the orbit is called an inclined orbit. These satellites appear to oscillate around a fixed point every day. As the angle between the orbit and the equator decreases, the magnitude of the oscillation becomes smaller. When the orbit is completely over the equator, the satellite remains stationary with respect to the earth's surface and the orbit is called geostationary orbit.
The majority of telecommunication satellites use geostationary orbit because the speed of telecommunication satellites is the same as the speed of rotation of the earth. Since they appear fixed in the sky, it is easy to point a satellite dish in a fixed direction and satellites can aim their telecommunications equipment at fixed points on the ground.