Ethernet network interface

What is Ethernet Network Interface?
Ethernet-Netzwerkschnittstelle bezieht sich auf eine Circuit board oder Karte, die in einem Personalcomputer oder einer Arbeitsstation als ein Netzwerk-Client installiert ist. Eine Netzwerkschnittstelle ermöglicht es einem Computer oder mobilen Gerät, eine Verbindung zu einem lokalen Netzwerk (LAN) unter Verwendung von Ethernet als Übertragungsmechanismus herzustellen.

There are many Ethernet standards that an Ethernet network interface must meet with different transmission speeds and available error correction types / rates. Ethernet is a standard for the transmission of binary data and although the hardware properties are defined, it is hardware independent, so that an Ethernet network interface can use all types of transmission hardware from fiber optics to coaxial cables to wirelessly, the hardware sending the interface / receives, and the required network transfer rates.
Ethernet is the most widely used LAN technology. Using the IEEE 802.3 standard, it was developed by Xerox in the early 1970s with later development assistance from DEC and Intel. However, the transfer rates were only around 10 Mbps.

Fast Ethernet increased the speed to 100 Mbit / s, with the next iteration moving to 1000 Mbit / s or 1.0 Gbit / s in 1998. Many corporate networks use a transmission technology known as Gigabit Ethernet, which now uses the IEEE 802.3z standard. This standard is commonly referred to as 1000Base-X. The next standard in 1999 was IEEE 802.ab and became known as 1000Base-T.

In 2000, two computers - the Apple Power Mac G4 and the PowerBook G4 - were mass-produced and could be connected to 1000Base-T Ethernet network connections. This feature was soon available in many other mass-produced desktop computers. By 2009, Gigabit Ethernet (GbE or 1 GigE) network interface controllers (NICs) were built into almost all desktop computers and server systems.

Also, by 2009, higher bandwidth 10 Gbps standards had been developed and 10 Gb Ethernet replaced 1 Gb as the backbone of most networks.

There is an even newer (circa 2011) standard of the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) called 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-TX (Gigabit Ethernet) and 10GBASE-T (10Gb Ethernet).

The 1000BASE-TX standard is a simplified design that requires less expensive electronics (NICs in network terminal computers). However, 1000BASE-TX requires CAT-6 cables and has not seen any success due to the limited benefit of this standard and the potentially high cost of rewiring.

The latest specifications under discussion for publication are for 100 Gigabit / s Ethernet standards.

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