Definition / explanation
Umweltauflagen – Werden z. B. neue Produktions- oder Verbrennungsanlagen installiert, neuartige Produktionsverfahren eingeleitet oder neue Maschinen in business gesetzt, so muss deren Umweltverträglichkeit von staatlichen Stellen (z. B. Gewerbeaufsicht) geprüft werden.
The companies (but also households) must submit to the legally prescribed environmental conditions, such as B. in Sections 4 and 5 of the Federal Immission Control Act are:
The limit values must be viewed as a particular problem when determining environmental requirements. The legislator has to determine which values of the pollution, z. B. per unit of measurement air, water, soil or food can just be tolerated. The politicians have to refer to the judgment of the environmental researchers. In many cases, however, there is disagreement about how high or better how low these limit values should be set.
Scientific research advances, it can take ever more precise measurements and prove the effects of environmental pollution on humans, animals or plants. The limit values must be adjusted accordingly.
Companies that do not comply with environmental regulations and cause environmental damage must be liable for this.
That Environmental Liability Act von 1991 regelt die zivilrechtliche Verantwortung und Entschädigung für Umweltschaden. Wer Schäden anrichtet, muss haften. Der Betreiber einer umweltgefährdenden Anlage muss selbst dann haften, wenn ihn an dem Umweltschaden kein Verschulden trifft.
It is sufficient that the system was capable of causing damage (strict liability). All damage to health and property is eligible for compensation. It is possible to take out environmental liability insurance for certain systems, although the insurers severely limit the scope of their obligation to provide benefits in the event of damage.
Violations of the existing requirements and laws to protect the environment are also prosecuted. The persecution is relentless here and the clearance rate is 75 percent.
In particular, the criminal offense of soil pollution, violations of air pollution control, the irresponsible handling of dangerous substances and goods and the damage to nature and water protection areas (e.g. by dumping garbage or discharging toxic substances) are prosecuted. The maximum sentence for environmental crime is ten years in prison.