Dissonance Theory - The individual seeks consistency of attitudes. This is to be understood as consistent, harmonious links between inner experiences. Individual attitudes can be inconsistent, which people experience as a cognitive conflict. An equilibrium theoretical approach is dissonance theory.
Dissonance is the presence of mismatched relationships between cognitions such as elements of knowledge, opinions, and attitudes.
For example, dissonances after buying a product or after absorbing information are important for marketing. Humans need to reduce, eliminate or avoid contradictions from the outset. Inconsistencies can be avoided through brand loyalty, for example, because inconsistencies are to be expected when choosing a new brand. In marketing practice, dissonances can be reduced by post-purchase advertising in the case of expensive consumer goods.