Customer Lifetime Value Approach

Customer Lifetime Value-Ansatz ist eine dynamische Methode zur Kundenstrukturanalyse im Rahmen des -wertorientierten Controlling. Das Konzept wendet die Kapitalwertmethode aus der Investitionsrechnung auf Geschäftsbeziehungen an und bildet somit den Wert eines Kunden als Vermögenswert ab. Der Customer Lifetime Value dient als Steuerungsgröße für das Relationship management, das sich mit der Anbahnung, der Steuerung und der Kontrolle des Investitionsobjektes Geschäftsbeziehung befasst.
Die Geschäftsbeziehung folgt dem Kunden-lebenszyklus (Product life cycle-Konzept) mit den Phasen Kenntnisnahme, frühe Entwicklung, Expansion und höchste Entwicklung. Der Verlauf der Kundenbeziehung wird vereinfachend durch die Entwicklung von Umsatz und Kosten dargestellt. Typischerweise ist der Umsatz in der Phase der Kenntnisnahme sehr gering und die Kosten recht hoch. Mit fortschreitendem Zyklus steigt dann der Umsatz und die Kosten sinken. Man unterstellt mit zunehmender Kundendauer eine Erhöhung der Kundenloyalität. Die gesteigerte Loyalität eröffnet Profitabilitätspotenziale durch Kosteneinsparungen aufgrund von geringerem Informations- und Koordinationsbedarf, durch Absatzsteigerung mittels Cross-Selling oder Selling-up und durch Preissteigerung aufgrund geringerer Preissensibilität.
Since the profitability of a customer is not constant over time, the customer lifetime value is used to estimate the customer contribution to the company's success. Under the aspect of efficient use of scarce resources, the focus is on creating long-lasting, more profitable ones

Customer relationship and pursues a differentiated design of marketing and sales measures for the individual customer groups.
The Customer Lifetime Value is calculated from the sum of the payments in and out, discounted to the current point in time, that arise during the entire duration of the customer relationship and that can be directly attributed to the customer.

The base profit results from the difference between sales and costs of the products and services. Up-selling expresses the increase in sales through, for example, increased purchase frequency. If the customer extends his purchase to other products of the company, this increase in sales is recorded as cross-selling. Price increases can be implemented with increasing customer duration, since on the one hand there is a higher willingness to pay on the part of loyal and satisfied customers.
On the other hand, the price elasticity of the customer can decrease, since with increasing customer duration the switching costs have become too high and thus his responsiveness has become smaller. Acquisition costs result from all investments in new customers. The falling advertising and service costs result from the fact that the customer becomes more and more loyal as his customer lifecycle progresses, which means that advertising costs can be reduced. At the same time, the customer knows the product better and therefore needs less support from the company.

Additional cash flows that result from the customer's recommendation potential must also be taken into account. Word-of-mouth advertising enables similar potential to be used with other customers. However, it is hardly possible to assign the payment flow to the recommending customer.

The qualitative values are an indicator of the customer lifetime value. Because the profit potential that is derived from the customer relationship assumes a satisfied and loyal customer with increasing customer duration. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty cannot be represented in monetary terms, but can be taken into account as a risk component in the interest rate.

The Customer Lifetime Value enables the analysis of opportunities and risks of long-term customer relationships and the effects of various marketing measures. It is particularly suitable for companies that know their customers, for example in the business-to-business area. Customer groups are formed for use in the mass customer area.

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