What is computer architecture?
Computer architecture is a specification that describes in detail how a number of software and hardware technology standards interact to form a computer system or platform. In short, computer architecture refers to how a computer system is designed and what technologies it is compatible with.
As with other contexts and meanings of the word architecture, computer architecture is compared to the art of determining the needs of the user / system / technology and creating a logical design and standards based on those requirements.
A very good example of computer architecture is the von Neumann architecture, which is used by most types of computers to this day. This was suggested in 1945 by the mathematician John von Neumann. It describes the structure of an electronic computer with its CPU, which contains the arithmetic logic unit, control unit, register, memory for data and instructions, an input / output interface and external memory functions.
There are three categories of computer architecture:
System Design: This includes all hardware components in the system, including data processors in addition to the CPU, such as the graphics processing unit and direct memory access. It also includes storage controllers, data paths, and various things like multiprocessing and virtualization.
Instruction Set Architecture (ISA): This is the embedded programming language of the central unit. It defines the functions and capabilities of the CPU based on the programming it can execute or process. These include word size, processor register types, memory addressing modes, data formats, and the instruction set used by programmers.
Microarchitecture: This type of architecture, also known as computer organization, defines the data paths, data processing and storage elements and their implementation in the ISA.