The concept of citizen value establishes a guiding principle for the measures of the state administration as an imperative to act. The services should be produced efficiently, offered in a way that is close to the people and presented transparently.
The citizen value concept is based on five points:
1. The public services should be produced efficiently,
2. Designed in a way that is citizen-oriented in terms of scope and type
3. and be made accessible through broad and open distribution channels.
4. At the same time, the activities and decision-making of public administrations should become more transparent
5. und die financing des Angebotes soll so gestaltet werden, daß sie allgemein als fair beurteilt wird und Akzeptanz findet.
Das Citizen-Value-Konzept bildet den Kern des New Public Management, mit dem die Mängel der klassischen kameralistischen Verwaltung gemildert werden sollen. Das New Public Management möchte mit einem umfassenden Verwaltungscontrolling die Performance von Produktion und distribution bei Infrastrukturleistungen verbessern, um so Demokratie und Effizienz wirksam zu verbinden.
In the past, the view was held in finance science that residents of a country generally financed state tasks and that the individual was not entitled to any specific consideration for his tax payment. The design of the type and scope of state provision of services, infrastructure, public goods, and administration of the community was the responsibility of the democratic decision-making process. Through the political system of the country it was implemented in an order to the public administration.
With this procedure, the citizen's influence on the output of the administration is small. It often happened that state provision of services became inefficient as measured against the productivity of the private economy. The costs rose and investments were seldom made in improving work processes. As a result, the range of services often fails to meet the needs of the population in terms of quality and the supply channels used.
In response to demands to introduce improvements here, the public sector has always argued that it is bound by laws and cameralistics. In fact, the classic cameralistic system is characterized by four features:
1. The fulfillment of the supply mandate and the loyalty duty of the officials involved, who are required by their employment relationship to avoid mistakes;
2. a high degree of vertical integration and low standardization or marketability of the additionally purchased, specially ordered advance services;
3. Legal verifiability and low-innovation, risk-avoiding behavior;
4. Once allocated budgets are used up and input orientation the officials based their behavior on the question: what resources do we have and what can be spent?
The Citizen Value concept is intended to introduce marketable solutions as possible. Starting points are production, distribution and financing.
· The workflows and processes in production must be optimized (reengineering).
· In distribution, a stronger focus on output and a clear consideration of needs should lead.
· When it comes to financing, the evaluation must include models that are previously unfamiliar to the public sector and that may require new legal structures.
Like private companies, providers of infrastructure services should seek external advice. Overall, practical comparisons from business life are to be made. The key words here are best practices and benchmarking.
The citizen value concept does not require deregulating everything and simply leaving the previously jointly organized infrastructure to the private sector. The idea is more to imitate the private sector. That means learning from the private sector and transferring what is transferable. Of course, the perspectives of New Public Management cannot become reality overnight, which is why implementation will still be a long time coming.
Early approaches to improving the performance of the state and municipalities as providers of services are based on cost-benefit analyzes. The citizen value approach, however, goes deeper and is more comprehensive than the preparation of a cost-benefit analysis for a project. Exemplary models are the Citizen Charter in Great Britain and the Government Performance Result Act in the USA. In Germany, municipal benchmarking is becoming increasingly important, for example the municipal benchmarking program sponsored by the Bertelsmann Foundation.