What is broadcast storm?
A broadcast storm occurs when a network system becomes overloaded with continuous multicast or broadcast traffic. When different nodes send / transmit data over a network connection and the other network devices send the data back to the network connection in response, it eventually leads to the whole network breaking down and failure of network communication.
There are many reasons for a broadcast storm, including poor technology, low port rate switches, and incorrect network configurations.
A broadcast storm is also known as a network storm.
Although computer networks and network devices are very intelligent and efficient, networks and network devices sometimes do not provide 100% efficiency. The broadcast storm is one of the major shortcomings in computer network systems.
Suppose there is a small LAN network that consists of three switches (switch A, switch B, and switch C) and three network segments (segment A, segment B, and segment C). Two nodes are connected in this network. Node A is connected to segment B, while node B is connected directly to switch A. If node B now wants to transmit a data packet to node A, traffic is transmitted from switch A to segment C. If that fails, switch A will also send traffic on segment A. Since node A is neither attached to segment C nor to segment A, these switches would continue to create a flood on segment B. If neither device nor switch have learned the address of node A, then the traffic is sent back to switch A. Therefore, all devices / switches continue to send and send the traffic, which eventually leads to a flood loop or transmission loop.
The following elements play an active role in creating a broadcast storm:
Bad network management
Bad monitoring of the network
The use of cheap equipment including hubs, switches, routers, cables, connectors, etc.
Improperly maintained network configuration and inexperienced network engineers
The lack of a network diagram design that is required for proper management and provides guidelines for all network traffic routes. This can be done on paper and with the help of application software that creates an automated network diagram.