What is biometrics
Biometrics is a technological and scientific authentication method based on biology and used in information assurance (IA). Biometric identification authenticates secure input, data or access using human biological information such as DNA or fingerprints. Biometric systems contain several interconnected components for effective functionality.
The biometric system associates an event with an individual, while other ID forms, such as a personal identification number (PIN), can be used by anyone.
Biometrics is used for security systems and replacement systems for ID cards, tokens or PINs. A key difference between biometric data and other systems is that the biometric verification physical information requires the presence of a person, creating a layer of security as other types of ID can be stolen, lost, or forged.
A biometric system includes the following components and functions:
A sensor that collects data and converts it into a usable digital format using software. This data can come from human behavioral or physical characteristics, such as a fingerprint or a retinal scan. A recording device such as a microphone or a scanner records the data.
A biometric template developed using the biometric system's signal processing algorithms. These templates are compared to the data storage of the biometric system and data is usually encrypted for added security. A suitable algorithm compares new templates with others that are stored in the data memory of the biometric system.
A decision making process uses matching events.