The accrual calculation is used to structure the expenses and income recorded in the financial and tax accounting according to their allocation to the operational service process. It therefore has an interface function between accounting and cost and performance accounting (KLR) and forms the basis for determining the actual operating result.
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Definition / explanation
In the context of cost and performance accounting (internal accounting), the main focus is on the costs incurred in the company and their allocation to the services provided, the various products or services.
An exact representation of the costs and income has a high informative value with regard to the profitability of the operational performance process, i.e. the actual corporate purpose (operating result).
The accrual calculation supports the determination of the operating result insofar that with its help so-called neutral, but also non-operating or period-related expenses and income are filtered out and imputed costs can be counted into it. After this process, the operating result is limited to the actual costs and services of the respective accounting period.
Content of the accrual calculation
In the accrual calculation, a distinction is made between operational and temporal delimitation. The time delimitation is important, as it means that different periods can only be compared. Expenses for larger claims, unscheduled impairments (depreciation) or higher tax refunds and income from the sale of parts of the company would unduly falsify individual period results.
Imputed depreciation and interest are the most important. The former map the actual consumption of fixed assets (e.g. machines) over the entire useful life, the latter the costs for the use of the operational capital.
These corrections are necessary because depreciation is otherwise imprecise according to tax law aspects (depreciation and useful life specified) and, for example, the lost interest if the capital were in a savings account instead of a business use.
The time delimitation ensures that the cost types are made periodically and. The following items often need to be accrued:
- rental fee
- Energy supplies
- Pay advances
- Wage arrears
Bei der betrieblichen Abgrenzung werden die neutrale Aufwendungen herausgerechnet und imputed costs hinzugerechnet. Betrieblich müssen oft folgende Posten abgegrenzt werden:
- Imputed interest
- Balance sheet depreciation
- Calculative rent
- Exceptional operating expenses
- Out-of-period expenses
Execution of the accrual calculation
A results table is used to carry out the accrual calculation. This chronologically lists which dates the Financial accounting delivers (the overall entrepreneurial result).
In a further step, the neutral result is determined from the filtered figures of the accrual calculation (after cost and income corrections). This leads to the operating result, which results from the costs and services of the operating purpose.