The definition of quality standards only makes sense in service companies if compliance or the degree of fulfillment is permanently and comprehensively checked.
The aim of such quality controls is to identify weaknesses in the range of services and trends in the assessment of the quality of the offer and service by customers in order to react accordingly.
In the literature, it is undisputed that quality control and measurement are presented as a particularly difficult problem in the case of services. Problems with such quality controls lie in the evaluation and quantification of the service and are particularly evident in the case of bilateral personal services, such as the legal advice of a lawyer or the care of a doctor during a hospital stay. Quality factors such as friendliness and politeness cannot be objectively verified. The immateriality and the need to integrate the external factor only permit objective quality measurement methods to a limited extent.
Während Sachleistungsbetriebe im Produktionsprozess auf allen Fertigungsstufen, vom Wareneingang bis zum Warenausgang, Prüfverfahren einsetzen können, um fehlerhafte Produkte nachzubessern oder auszusondern, verfügen Service companies hier nur über eingeschränkte Kontrollmöglichkeiten. Wird im Rahmen der Sachgüterproduktion „Ausschuss“ festgestellt, so kann dieser vor dem Absatz des Gutes beseitigt werden. Da der Dienstleistungsnachfrager unabdingbarer Bestandteil der Dienstleistungserstellung ist, wirkt sich eine fehlerhafte Leistungserstellung direkt auf den Kunden aus.
If, for example, a parcel is promised for a fixed date and this date is not met, the customer will notice this poor performance immediately and cannot be reversed by the provider. An exchange or return is usually not possible either. Likewise, it is mostly impossible to carry out repairs in the case of poorly rendered services (e.g. cut hair, washed-out clothes).
Since production control can hardly be implemented in the service sector, controls of the services used must be carried out with regard to their quality. A distinction should be made between quantitative and qualitative measurement methods as indicators for measuring service quality.
- Control of compliance with defined quality standards
- Response time to customer inquiries
- Speed of claims settlement with an insurance company
- Waiting time at the check-in counter of an airline
- Number of minutes after which an unsold item is destroyed in a fast food restaurant
- Duration of the acceptance of an incoming phone call (for example, Citybank wants to accept all phone calls within 10 seconds and answer all customer letters within 2 days)
- Number of cancellations
- Number of letters of complaint
- Frequency of complaints and claims
- customer turnover rate
- Control of professional and social employee skills (e.g. test consultations, Mistery Shopper)
- Customer satisfaction survey
- Image survey.
At Lufthansa, for example, all relevant objective and subjective information on service quality is brought together and analyzed in a department in order to initiate appropriate quality assurance measures with the relevant departments if the measured quality criteria deviate from the defined standards. Important sources in the context of these quality controls by Lufthansa are:
Reports of damage to luggage
Processing time of customer concerns
Measurement of telephone call times (so the customer must receive a free symbol on the third dial attempt at the latest and be served within 20 seconds)
Waiting times at the check-in counter (for example, the customer may only wait a maximum of 5 minutes from standing in line to being served).
The passenger surveys carried out by Lufthansa, which have been carried out as permanent surveys on board the flights since 1979, are also to be classified as qualitative, external controls. In addition, one percent of all Lufthansa customers annually, ie around. 270,000 passengers, with the help of a questionnaire during the flight systematically on the topics ...
· Product and service quality
· Friendliness and willingness to provide information on the part of employees
· Check-in and boarding process
· Comfort of the seat on board
· Meals and beverage service
· Entertainment program