In science there are different views as to which management approach is most promising for the company. A large number of management approaches have been developed in the context of leadership research. These include:
Scientific Management, developed by Taylor in 1911. After that, the leadership is mainly characterized by the rational use of people and machines in the production process. Features of Taylorism are e.g. B. Performance and efficiency thinking, systematic working time studies, striving for productivity and profitability.
The bureaucracy management, which was described by M. Weber (1864-1920) as the purest form of legal rule. Characteristics are a strict hierarchical structure, an administration by officials and a filing of the administration.
Psychotechnics, presented by Stern in 1900 and further developed by Münsterberg in 1912. It is based on the knowledge that maximum performance is not permanently possible, but that physiological, psychological and ergonomic factors also influence work performance. The pursuit of economic efficiency is complemented by humanity.
Human relations approach
the Human relations approach (1927-1932) based on research by Mayo, Roethlisberger, Dickson, Whitehead, in the Hawthorne Works. It shows that it is less the technically changed working conditions than the social behavior towards workers that lead to labor productivity (Hawthorne effect). In addition, the role of the informal group or that of the informal group leader was recognized.
Today's management theory is primarily shaped by the human relations approach. In addition to the management approaches, z. B. the XY theory, the Two factor theory and the management-by-techniques counted.