Degree of information - Information is understood to be purpose-oriented knowledge, i.e. knowledge that is required to carry out certain activities or to make decisions. The quality of decisions is generally higher, the better informed the decision-makers (e.g. customers) are. As a rule, the decision-makers are not fully informed. The degree of information is a measure of the imperfection of the information:
Degree of information = information available / necessary information
Der objektive Informationsgrad von Kunden bzw. Einkäufern ist normalerweise kleiner als „1“, woraus das Risiko von falschen Kaufentscheidungen resultiert. Die Kunden werden zudem durch die Werbung und Verkäufer mancher Unternehmen desinformiert, indem bewusst falsche Informationen gegeben und/oder nachteilige Informationen bewusst verschwiegen werden (disinformation).
However, a high level of information is not a sign of an optimal supply of purpose-oriented knowledge if it is based on the following causes:
Underestimation of the necessary information
Overestimation of the information available
The underestimation of the necessary information and the overestimation of the available information lead to an increase in the subjective level of information.
Today, cutthroat competition is fierce in most sales markets because supply exceeds demand. This means that marketing communication today takes place in buyers' markets. In order to withstand increasing competition, companies need to advertise more and intensify their sales efforts. As a result, the demanders are literally inundated with information by the providers, so that they feel overloaded with information.
The information overload leads to an overestimation of the available information and thus to a high degree of subjective information. The information overload caused by advertising campaigns and sales talks has meanwhile become so severe that consumers and professional buyers are resisting it.
The advertising messages and sales arguments are filtered, which means that the diverse information is only perceived selectively. The difficult task of marketing communication is to overcome this filter by optimally structuring the information (argumentation).