What is CPU lock?
A CPU lock, or a CPU lock, is the process of using a CPU's clock multiplier, either permanently or until the lock is released. The main purpose is to prevent users from overclocking the CPUs so that they operate in conditions for which they were not designed and then potentially damaging them. This is also a common way of differentiating CPU models so that manufacturers can sell low, mid, and high-end tier CPUs by locking cores and multipliers for slower performance, thereby creating lower tier models become.
A CPU lock means that a function of the CPU is locked, usually a core or a clock multiplier. This means that the CPU is tied to its current performance state and cannot be overclocked to increase performance or underclocked to reduce power consumption. However, some CPU models are intentionally unlocked to fill a specific segment of the market that offers enthusiasts and gamers the opportunity to overclock the CPU. For Intel, these are the models with the designation 'K', like the Core i7-3770K, while AMD used the designation 'Black' for a while before switching to the designation 'K' as well.
CPU locking became a practice because in the earlier years of CPU manufacturing technology, not all CPU chips produced were created equal; most were imperfect and some had areas that did not work. Instead of throwing away these imperfect but working CPUs, they were sold as lower models. For example, for multiple core CPUs that were supposed to have four cores but only two or three cores were active due to manufacturing inconsistencies, the dead cores had to be locked so they weren't used and cause problems, and then they were considered lower Models sold.
Further innovations in manufacturing ensured that most of the chips that were created in the process were more or less perfect. As a result, they stopped using CPU locks to lock down non-working cores. Instead, they used them to lock working ones to continue serving the lower segments.